Annals of Public Health 2022-05-29T18:59:44+00:00 Annals of Public Health Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Annals of Public Health (ISSN: 2831-6193)</strong> is an international open-access peer-reviewed journal, based on a continuous publication model, and aims to publish original works of high quality, covering all public health fields.</p> Health Policy and Systems Research in Sub-Saharan Africa during the COVID-19 Pandemic 2022-01-10T12:23:47+00:00 Emery Manirambona 2022-01-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Emery Manirambona A Description of lethal lead Intoxication in Dante’s Divine Comedy 2022-05-29T18:59:44+00:00 Konstantinos Stamatiou Andreas Stamatiou <p>Dante Alighieri is one of the most important authors of Italian and worldwide literature. He achieved lasting worldwide fame with his Divine Comedy. In this work, he reveals an impressive ability to describe medical matters. In this paper we discuss the case of Master Adam the Englishman (Magistro Adam de Anglia) presented in the Inferno as a possible case of lead intoxication induced chronic renal insufficiency.</p> 2022-07-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Stamatiou K et al. Global, WHO Regional, and Continental Prevalence of Self-medication from 2000 to 2018: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis 2021-11-27T11:06:07+00:00 Shabnam Ghasemyani Mahshid Roohravan Benis Hossein Hosseinifard Reza Jahangiri Aidin Aryankhesal Hosein Shabaninejad Sima Rafiei Ahmad Ghashghaee <p><strong>Background:</strong> Nowadays, with regard to the availability of medicines and populations’ increased knowledge of medical sciences, self-medication has increased which is a challenging issue for the healthcare system. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of self-medication, comprehensively at a global level. In addition, effective factors in this regard, including the motives of self-medication, diversity of medicines used, the supply resources, and type of the resulted disease were evaluated.<br /><strong style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Materials:</strong><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> English language articles published during 2000-2018 were systematically searched in Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus to find relevant research. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated independently by two researchers the relevant articles were examined based on the prevalence of the phenomenon and factors such as setting of study, common reasons for self-medication, and common drugs used.<br /></span><strong style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Results:</strong><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> From 951 primarily revealed articles, 69 papers were entered for the final analysis. Overall, 41620 individuals were included in the selected papers, 67% of whom (N=27890) had at least one experience of self-medication. Among the continents, Europe (Eastern) had the highest incidence rate of self-medication (74%, 95% CI, 56%-86%). In terms of supply resources, 71% of the subjects purchased drugs from pharmacies (95% CI, 61-80%). Regarding the condition that led to self-medication, 48% of the patients turned to self-medication due to neurological problems (95% CI, 40-55%). Among the causes of self-medication, “a previous history” and “minor nature of the disease” were the most common reasons for self-medication.<br /></span><strong style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Conclusion:</strong><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> According to the results of the study, the mean incidence of self-medication was higher in Eastern Europe and Asian countries, compared to other parts of the world. This could be a considerable note for policy-makers of this field. In general, self-medication can lead to short and long-term harmful consequences for the society and the healthcare systems, resulting in huge costs for countries.</span></p> 2022-01-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ghashghaee A et al. Return on Investment from the Prevention of Orphan Diseases in Kuwait 2022-02-28T11:31:35+00:00 Salem Abuhadida Laila Bastaki Buthina Bash Barrak Alhindal <p>Spinal Muscular Atrophy type 1 and RPE65 mutation-associated Inherited Retinal dystrophy are two well-known Orphan diseases for expensive Orphan drugs. Being inheritable disorders, they can be prevented through a program that includes Premarital Genetic Screening to detect the defective gene carriers followed by Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis to identify healthy gametes and In Vitro Fertilization. We developed a stochastic financial model to assess the Return on Investment over five years of implementing a prevention program to tackle these conditions from the financial perspective of the Ministry of Health in Kuwait. The ROI from the prevention program was shown to be highly cost-saving, with a probabilistic average of 9,710,311 USD (2,930,727 KWD). Every 1 USD or KWD spent on prevention would return 1.5 USD or KWD in savings. Meanwhile, not implementing the prevention program could cost the MOH a probabilistic average of 71,431,037 USD (21,555,325 KWD) within the same period. The findings of this study strongly support the adoption and implementation of the prevention program from the financial perspective of the MOH.</p> 2022-03-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Abuhadida S et al. Thirdhand Smoke Exposure in Homes with Children under 48 Months during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic Confinement in Barcelona (Spain) 2022-02-11T11:20:55+00:00 Cristina Lidón-Moyano Ana Díez-Izquierdo Pia Cassanello Àurea Cartanyà-Hueso Juan Carlos Martín-Sánchez Albert Balaguer Jose M Martínez-Sánchez <p><strong>Background/Objectives:</strong> Due to serious restrictions on mobility, some children might have increased exposure to THS due to home confinement. To characterize third-hand smoke (THS) exposure in children under 48 months at homes in Spain during the confinement of the first wave of COVID-19.<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> Cross-sectional study of a non-probabilistic sample of parents (n = 311). The gathered information was about smoking status, second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure of their children, and voluntary regulation of tobacco consumption at their home. A variable of THS exposure at home was derived, classifying as ‘THS exposed’ those children whose parents reported living with a smoker or with smoking parents and non-exposed to SHS; ‘Non exposed’ children were, therefore, all other children.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Almost a quarter of the children (23.5%) were exposed to THS. This prevalence was significantly higher among those children whose parents increased tobacco consumption during confinement (40.5%), whose parents had lower or medium educational levels (42.9% and 41.7%), and with younger parents (24.8%). In contrast, the prevalence was significantly lower among those children living in homes with complete voluntary smoke restrictions (21.1%).<br /><strong style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Conclusions/Recommendations:</strong><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> To reduce THS exposure among children, it is important to work on information campaigns to raise awareness regarding THS exposure, promote recommendations to avoid exposure to THS, and develop legislation promoting smoke-free environments (in homes and vehicles).</span></p> 2022-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Díez-Izquierdo A Impact of Nyiragongo Volcanic Eruptions on the Resilience to the COVID-19 and Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo 2021-11-27T10:47:31+00:00 Emery Manirambona Emmanuel Uwiringiyimana Shuaibu Saidu Musa Samuel Niyonkuru Dawa Gyeltshen Yusuff Adebayo Adebisi Don Eliseo Lucero-Prisno III <p>For decades, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been vulnerable to disasters. The most dangerous Nyiragongo volcanic eruption posed a threat to the country, particularly the city of Goma. The explosions on 22 May 2021 caused unfathomable damages, with loss of lives, properties, and the destruction of homes, displacing thousands of people, with thousands of children being left vulnerable as a result. Furthermore, it charred health and school infrastructures and decimated crops, an issue in the population where the COVID-19 has exacerbated the existing fragile health system. Importantly, these eruptions posed a challenge when DRC struggled to end COVID-19 and Ebola through surveillance, preventive measures, and vaccination. It is doubtless that priorities of the emergency have interrupted the surveillance system, thus increasing exposure to the COVID-19 and Ebola transmission. It is critical to provide basic needs to victims of the Nyiragongo volcanic eruptions in the aftermath of such a disaster. Local and global humanitarian organizations are needed to assist residents in relocating. Furthermore, appropriate and adjusted mitigation strategies will significantly prevent Ebola, COVID-19, and other infectious diseases. In this paper, we discuss the impacts of the volcanic eruption on population health and Ebola preparedness and response in the context of the global COVID-19 outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.</p> 2022-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Manirambona E et al Financial Burden and Average Cost of COVID-19 per Patient Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in Kuwait 2022-04-27T12:52:55+00:00 Salem Abuhadida Saud Alzaid Medhat Elshazely Barrak Alhindal <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> COVID-19 pandemic imposed a massive impact on constrained healthcare resources especially Intensive Care Units beds. Nevertheless, few studies have explored direct medical costs of ICU admissions and the financial burden associated with them.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> Our aim is to estimate the average direct medical cost of COVID-19 admitted to ICU per patient and per diem as well as the associated financial burden.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> A stochastic financial model was developed in accordance with Kuwait Task Force guidelines for COVID-19 management in ICU.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Our results showed the average cost of COVID-19 patients admitted in the ICU per patient and per diem to be 16,471 KWD (53,354 USD) and 1,643 KWD (5,422 USD) respectively. While the financial burden over one fiscal year amounted to 15,795,830 KWD (52,126,239 USD).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This estimate can guide policy makers, researchers and financial analysts to follow a data driven decisions in planning and budgeting healthcare resources for this concurrent event or similar future events.</p> 2022-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Abuhadida S et al. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Practices towards COVID-19 among Bangladeshi Students: An Online Based Cross-sectional Study 2022-03-01T14:32:20+00:00 Md. Hasan Al Banna Satyajit Kundu Abu Sayeed Keith Brazendale Musammet Rasheda Begum Bright Opoku Ahinkorah Joshua Okyere Md Shafiqul Islam Khan <p>This study sought to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward COVID-19 among Bangladeshi students. An online-based cross-sectional study was conducted in late April 2020 among 904 Bangladeshi students using a Snowball sampling technique. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent sample t-tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Multiple linear regression was employed to calculate the associations between KAP scores and other demographic variables. The mean COVID-19 knowledge score was 14.45 (SD: 1.72; range: 7-17), indicating a moderate level of knowledge. The mean scores for attitudes and practices were 2.45 (SD: 1.13; range: 0-6) and 4.58 (SD: 0.71; range: 1-5), indicating negative attitudes and reasonable practices toward COVID-19, respectively. Students enrolled at the undergraduate level or higher and from urban areas were associated with higher knowledge and practice scores. Students who read scientific articles as their main source of COVID-19 information were more knowledgeable than their peers. Students who participated in online training/courses about COVID-19 were significantly associated with higher KAP scores. The negative attitude of students reported in this study indicates the need for government and policymakers to ensure more targeted awareness campaigns are implemented to enhance public confidence and participation in COVID-19 preventive measures.</p> 2022-03-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Kundu S et al