A Scoping Literature Review of Recall and Memory Psychometric Tools


Standardized Examinations
Social Security
Pediatric Assessments
Geriatric Assessments
Adult Assessments

How to Cite

Varkey, P. K., Merhavy, Z. I., Simtion, K., Varkey, J., & Varkey, T. C. (2022). A Scoping Literature Review of Recall and Memory Psychometric Tools . Current Medicine, 1. Retrieved from https://mediterraneanjournals.com/index.php/cm/article/view/647


Aim: This scoping literature review aims to determine what is known about 1) the method of testing memory for both long-term and short-term memory and 2) determine which of these methods may be useful in testing the memory.
Background: Several cognitive domains are actively utilized in basic adult activities of daily living (ADLs). These can and are often tested by different cognitive batteries and are necessary to test for patients to receive social support funds and access to programs.
Methods: The study follows the established methods for a scoping literature review with guidelines to identify memory tests, their validity within the field, and the different test limitations within its major age demographic. The article restricts its research to articles published between 1985 to 2021 published quantitative and qualitative primary studies, evaluation research, and systematic and other types of reviews are included if they address different cognitive and memory abilities along with different memory test applications and their use within different major age demographics, and they are published in English.
Results: The combined search strategy yielded 93,000 articles, of which 88 are included. The use of different memory tests in the major age demographics (pediatrics, adult, and geriatrics) was evaluated, and the findings from the different articles were summarized in written form and a table.
Discussion: These 88 peer-reviewed sources were utilized to develop this scoping literature review on the current standard assessment tools for measuring the psychometric properties of memory, recall, and learning.



Raba AAA, Ismail IA. Investigating Schools’ Role in Enhancing Creative Thinking Skills in the English Curricula from Teachers’ Perspectives. https://wwwhilarispublishercom/open-access/investigating-schools-role-in-enhancing-creative-thinking-skills-in-the-english-curricula-from-teachers-perspectivespdf. 2020;12(1). Available from: https://www.hilarispublisher.com/open-access/investigating-schools-role-in-enhancing-creative-thinking-skills-in-the-english-curricula-from-teachers-perspectives.pdf

Overbaugh RC, Schultz L, Schultzrichard L, Overbaugh C. CET TL BloomsTaxonomy. 2011. Available from: http://www.fitnyc.edu/files/pdfs/CET_TL_BloomsTaxonomy.pdf

Krathwohl DR. A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview. Theory Into Practice. 2002;41(4):212–8. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4104_2

Adams NE. Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive learning objectives. Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA. 2015;103(3):152–3. https://doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.103.3.010

Mehrens WA, Kaminski J. Methods for Improving Standardized Test Scores: Fruitful, Fruitless, or Fraudulent? Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice. 1989;8(1):14–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3992.1989.tb00304.x

Haladyna T, Nolen S, Haas N. Raising standardized achievement test scores and the origins of test score pollution. Educational Researcher. 1991 [Accessed 2022 Apr 12];20(5). Available from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED349826.pdf

No Pain, High Gain Standardized Test Preparation. Instructor. 1997;107(3):89. Available from: https://soe.umich.edu/sites/default/files/2020-01/DukeCV10.29.19.pdf

Volante L. Toward Appropriate Preparation for Standardized Achievement Testing. Journal of Educational Thought / Revue de la Pensée Educative. 2018;40(2):129–44. https://doi.org/10.11575/jet.v40i2.52568

Atkinson R. Standardized Tests and Access to American Universities. 2001; https://doi.org/https://escholarship.org/uc/item/6182126z

Haladyna TM. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing. Educational Horizons. 2006;85(1):30–43. Available from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ750641

Varkey T. “Watch Your Language”: A Literature Review on the Use of Dirty words in Improving Memory for Adult Learners. Proclins Psychiat. 2021;1(1). Available from: http://proclins.com/article/Psychiatry-1-1001.pdf

Yang Y, Wang J-Z. From Structure to Behavior in Basolateral Amygdala-Hippocampus Circuits. Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 2017;11:86. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncir.2017.00086

Richter-Levin G, Akirav I. Amygdala-Hippocampus Dynamic Interaction in Relation to Memory. Molecular Neurobiology. 2000;22(1-3):011–20. https://doi.org/10.1385/mn:22:1-3:011

David B. Morris. The Neurobiology of the Obscene: Henry Miller and Tourette Syndrome. Literature and Medicine. 1993;12(2):194–214. https://doi.org/10.1353/lm.2011.0100

Harris CL, Aycicegi A, Gleason JB. Taboo words and reprimands elicit greater autonomic reactivity in a first language than in a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics. 2003;24(4):561–79. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0142716403000286

Isenberg N, Silbersweig D, Engelien A, Emmerich S, Malavade K, Beattie B, et al. Linguistic threat activates the human amygdala. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1999;96(18):10456–9. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.18.10456

Barry DN, Maguire EA. Remote Memory and the Hippocampus: A Constructive Critique. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 2019;23(2):128–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2018.11.005

Basu S, Alapin JM, Dines M, Lamprecht R. Long-term memory is maintained by continuous activity of Arp2/3 in lateral amygdala. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. 2020 Jan;167:107115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2019.107115

O’Reilly RC, Rudy JW. Computational principles of learning in the neocortex and hippocampus. Hippocampus. 2000;10(4):389–97. https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-1063(2000)10:4%3C389::AID-HIPO5%3E3.0.CO;2-P

Pyc MA, Rawson KA. Testing the retrieval effort hypothesis: Does greater difficulty correctly recalling information lead to higher levels of memory? Journal of Memory and Language. 2009;60(4):437–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2009.01.004

Benton AL. Neuropsychological Assessment. Annual Review of Psychology. 1994;45(1):1–23. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.45.020194.000245

Cipolotti L, Warrington EK. Neuropsychological assessment. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 1995;58(6):655–64. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.58.6.655

Sullivan K. Neuropsychological Assessment of Mental Capacity. Neuropsychology Review. 2004;14(3):131–42. https://doi.org/10.1023/b:nerv.0000048180.86543.39

Schaughency EA, Lahey BB, Hynd GW, Stone PA, Piacentini JC, Frick PJ. Neuropsychological test performance and the attention deficit disorders: Clinical utility of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery—Children’s Revision. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1989;57(1):112–6. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.57.1.112

Iverson G, Brooks B, White T, Stern R. Neuropsychological Assessment Battery: Introduction and advanced interpretation. 2008 [Accessed 2022 Apr 12]. Available from: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2007-16755-010

Temple RO, Zgaljardic DJ, Abreu BC, Seale GS, Ostir GV, Ottenbacher KJ. Ecological validity of the neuropsychological assessment battery screening module in post-acute brain injury rehabilitation. Brain Injury. 2009;23(1):45–50. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699050802590361

Moms JC, Heyman A, Mohs RC, Hughes JP, van Belle G, Fillenbaum G, et al. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD). Part I. Clinical and neuropsychological assesment of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology. 1989;39(9):1159–9. https://doi.org/10.1212/wnl.39.9.1159

Board of Directors. American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN) Practice Guidelines for Neuropsychological Assessment and Consultation. The Clinical Neuropsychologist. 2007;21(2):209–31. https://doi.org/10.1080/13825580601025932

Elbulok-Charcape, Rabin M, Spadaccini L, Barr A, William B. Trends in the neuropsychological assessment of ethnic/racial minorities: A survey of clinical neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada. 2014 [Accessed 2022 Apr 12]. Available from: https://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2014-29268-005.html

Cognitive Tests and Performance Validity Tests. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. National Academies Press (US); 2015 [Accessed 2022 Apr 12]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK305230

Groth-Marnat G. Neuropsychological Assessment in Clinical Practice: A Guide to Test Interpretation and Integration | Wiley. 2000 [Accessed 2022 Apr 12]. Available from: https://www.wiley.com/en-us/Neuropsychological+Assessment+in+Clinical+Practice%3A+A+Guide+to+Test+Interpretation+and+Integration-p-9780471193258

WHO. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). 2001 [Accessed 2022 Apr 12]. Available from: https://www.who.int/standards/classifications/international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health

Atkinson RC, Shiffrin RM. Human Memory: a Proposed System and Its Control Processes. Psychology of Learning and Motivation. 1968;2(1):89–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0079-7421(08)60422-3

Tulving E. Multiple memory systems and consciousness. Human Neurobiology. 1987;6(2):67–80. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3305441/

Tulving E. MEMORY SYSTEMS AND THE BRAIN. Clinical Neuropharmacology. 1992;15(Part A):327A. Available from: https://journals.lww.com/clinicalneuropharm/Citation/1992/01001/MEMORY_SYSTEMS_AND_THE_BRAIN.169.aspx

Stimmel M, Green D, Belfi B, Klaver J. Exploring the Accuracy and Utility of the Rey Fifteen Item Test (RMT) with Recognition Trial in a Forensic Psychiatric Population. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health. 2012;11(1):51–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/14999013.2012.676148

Green P, Lees-Haley PR, Allen LM. The Word Memory Test and the Validity of Neuropsychological Test Scores. Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology. 2003;2(3-4):97–124. https://doi.org/10.1300/j151v02n03_05

Rees LM, Tombaugh TN, Gansler DA, Moczynski NP. Five validation experiments of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM). Psychological Assessment. 1998;10(1):10–20. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.10.1.10

Choi W, Jung JJ, Grantcharov T. Impact of Hawthorne effect on healthcare professionals: a systematic review. 2019 [Accessed 2022 Apr 12]; Available from: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Impact-of-Hawthorne-effect-on-healthcare-a-review-Choi-Jung/a151788980bb64c00206b9762bd02a766db1fbf4

Dumitrescu AL. The Hawthorne Effect. Understanding Periodontal Research. 2012;459–63. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-28923-1_15

McCambridge J, Witton J, Elbourne DR. Systematic review of the Hawthorne effect: New concepts are needed to study research participation effects. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2014;67(3):267–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.08.015

Fernald DH, Coombs L, DeAlleaume L, West D, Parnes B. An assessment of the Hawthorne Effect in practice-based research. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM. 2012;25(1):83–6. https://doi.org/10.3122/jabfm.2012.01.110019

McCarney R, Warner J, Iliffe S, van Haselen R, Griffin M, Fisher P. The Hawthorne Effect: a randomised, controlled trial. BMC Medical Research Methodology. 2007;7(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-7-30

Fuster JM. Frontal lobe and cognitive development. Journal of neurocytology. 2002;31(3-5):373–85. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1024190429920

Klingberg T, Vaidya CJ, Gabrieli JDE, Moseley ME, Hedehus M. Myelination and organization of the frontal white matter in children. NeuroReport. 1999;10(13):2817–21. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001756-199909090-00022

Shute GE, Huertas V. Developmental variability in frontal lobe function. Developmental Neuropsychology. 1990;6(1):1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/87565649009540445

Lowe PA, Mayfield JW, Reynolds CR. Gender differences in memory test performance among children and adolescents. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology. 2003;18(8):865–78. https://doi.org/10.1093/arclin/18.8.865

Reynolds C. Factor structure, factor indexes, and other useful statistics for interpretation of the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL). Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology. 1996;11(1):29–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/0887-6177(95)00027-5

Donders J. PERFORMANCE ON THE TEST OF MEMORY MALINGERING IN A MIXED PEDIATRIC SAMPLE. Child Neuropsychology. 2005;11(2):221–7. https://doi.org/10.1080/09297040490917298

Kirk JW, Harris B, Hutaff-Lee CF, Koelemay SW, Dinkins JP, Kirkwood MW. Performance on the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) among a large clinic-referred pediatric sample. Child Neuropsychology. 2011;17(3):242–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2010.533166

Weber Ku E, Oliveira JS, Cook NE, McCurdy K, Kavanaugh B, Cancilliere MK, et al. Assessing performance validity with the TOMM and automatized sequences task in a pediatric psychiatric inpatient setting. Child Neuropsychology. 2020;26(6):801–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2020.1712345

Brooks BL, Sherman EMS, Krol AL. Utility of TOMM Trial 1 as an Indicator of Effort in Children and Adolescents. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology. 2011;27(1):23–9. https://doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acr086

Lah S, Epps A, Levick W, Parry L. Implicit and explicit memory outcome in children who have sustained severe traumatic brain injury: Impact of age at injury (preliminary findings). Brain Injury. 2010;25(1):44–52. https://doi.org/10.3109/02699052.2010.531693

Gascoigne MB, Barton B, Webster R, Gill D, Antony J, Lah SS. Accelerated long-term forgetting in children with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2012;53(12):2135–40. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2012.03719.x

Rhodes SM, Park J, Seth S, Coghill DR. A comprehensive investigation of memory impairment in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2011;53(2):128–37. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02436.x

Gathercole SE, Woolgar F, Kievit RA, Astle D, Manly T, Holmes J. How Common are WM Deficits in Children with Difficulties in Reading and Mathematics? Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition. 2016;5(4):384–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2016.07.013

Law C, Juraskova I, Lah S. Systematic review of pediatric memory questionnaires. Child Neuropsychology. 2021;27(6):734–81. https://doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2021.1888908

Alloway TP, Gathercole SE, Kirkwood H, Elliott J. The working memory rating scale: A classroom-based behavioral assessment of working memory. Learning and Individual Differences. 2009;19(2):242–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2008.10.003

Absatova K. Applying Automated Working Memory Assessment and Working Memory Rating Scale in Russian Population. The Russian Journal of Cognitive Science. 2016;3(1-2):21–33. Available from: http://www.cogjournal.ru/3/2/pdf/AbsatovaRJCS2016.pdf

Guzman-Orth D, Grimm R, Gerber M, Orosco M, Swanson HL, Lussier C. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. 2014;33(6):555–67. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282914558710

Engel de Abreu PMJ, Nikaedo C, Abreu N, Tourinho CJ, Miranda MC, Bueno OFA, et al. Working Memory Screening, School Context, and Socioeconomic Status. Journal of Attention Disorders. 2013;18(4):346–56. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054713476138

Normand S, Tannock R. Screening for Working Memory Deficits in the Classroom. Journal of Attention Disorders. 2012;18(4):294–304. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054712445062

Wiguna T, WR NS, Kaligis F, Belfer ML. Learning Difficulties and Working Memory Deficits among Primary School Students in Jakarta, Indonesia. Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience. 2012;10(2):105–9. https://doi.org/10.9758/cpn.2012.10.2.105

Politimou N, Masoura E, Kiosseoglou G. Working Memory Rating Scale’s Utility to Identify Children’s Memory Difficulties in Diverse Educational Environments: Can It Work in Every School? Applied Cognitive Psychology. 2015;29(2):291–8. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3107

Cottingham ME, Hawkins KA. Verbal fluency deficits co-occur with memory deficits in geriatric patients at risk for dementia: Implications for the concept of mild cognitive impairment. Behavioural Neurology. 2010;22(3-4):73–9. https://doi.org/10.3233/ben-2009-0246

Hering A, Kliegel M, Rendell PG, Craik FIM, Rose NS. Prospective Memory Is a Key Predictor of Functional Independence in Older Adults. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. 2018;24(6):640–5. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1355617718000152

Optale G, Urgesi C, Busato V, Marin S, Piron L, Priftis K, et al. Controlling Memory Impairment in Elderly Adults Using Virtual Reality Memory Training: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 2009;24(4):348–57. https://doi.org/10.1177/1545968309353328

Rhodes RE, Katz B. Working memory plasticity and aging. Psychology and Aging. 2017;32(1):51–9. https://doi.org/10.1037/pag0000135

Adam KCS, Serences JT. Working Memory: Flexible but Finite. Neuron. 2019;103(2):184–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.06.025

B. Brent Simmons, Hartmann B, DeJoseph D. Evaluation of Suspected Dementia. American Family Physician. 2011;84(8):895–902. Available from: https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1015/p895.html

Fuld PA, Masur DM, Blau AD, Crystal H, Aronson MK. Object-memory evaluation for prospective detection of dementia in normal functioning elderly: Predictive and normative data. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 1990;12(4):520–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/01688639008400998

Wall JR, Deshpande SA, MacNei SE, Lichtenberg PA. The Fuld Object Memory Evaluation, a Useful Tool in the Assessment of Urban Geriatric Patients. Clinical Gerontologist. 1998;19(1). Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J018v19n01_04?casa_token=UlBeObLIKqwAAAAA:hTdzn4oyeUrOx3BVF3irr7vbadkJCgJkIB8bdRcOBTbqiDOJHTKJa6uakX_r2Hhd1duPUI-LOJsH

Summers JD, Lichtenberg PA, Vangel SJ. Fuld Object-Memory Evaluation in an Urban Geriatric Population. Clinical Gerontologist. 1995;15(4):21–34. https://doi.org/10.1300/j018v15n04_03

Schwartz GE. Development and Validation of the Geriatric Evaluation by Relative’s Rating Instrument (Gerri). Psychological Reports. 1983;53(2):479–88E. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1983.53.2.479

Moorhouse P, Gorman M, Rockwood K. Comparison of EXIT-25 and the Frontal Assessment Battery for Evaluation of Executive Dysfunction in Patients Attending a Memory Clinic. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 2009;27(5):424–8. https://doi.org/10.1159/000212755

Quinlan PT, Cohen DJ. Grouping and binding in visual short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 2012;38(5):1432–8. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027866

John K. Selected short-term memory tests as predictors of reading readiness. Psychology in the Schools. 1998;35(2). Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6807(199804)35:2%3C137::AID-PITS5%3E3.0.CO;2-M

Leyk D, Sievert A, Heiss A, Gorges W, Ridder D, Alexander T, et al. Validation of a short-term memory test for the recognition of people and faces. Ergonomics. 2008;51(8):1125–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140130802094371

Gómez-Pérez E, Ostrosky-Solís F. Attention and Memory Evaluation Across the Life Span: Heterogeneous Effects of Age and Education. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 2006;28(4):477–94. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803390590949296

Tatum PE, Shaida Talebreza, Ross JS. Geriatric Assessment: An Office-Based Approach. American Family Physician. 2018;97(12):776–84. Available from: https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p776.html

De Luca CR, Wood SJ, Anderson V, Buchanan J-A, Proffitt TM, Mahony K, et al. Normative Data From the Cantab. I: Development of Executive Function Over the Lifespan. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 2003;25(2):242–54. https://doi.org/10.1076/jcen.

Kimel E, Weiss AH, Jakoby H, Daikhin L, Ahissar M. Short-term memory capacity and sensitivity to language statistics in dyslexia and among musicians. Neuropsychologia. 2020;149:107624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2020.107624

Bacon AM, Parmentier FBR, Barr P. Visuospatial memory in dyslexia: Evidence for strategic deficits. Memory. 2013;21(2):189–209. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2012.718789

Etnier JL, Sprick PM, Labban JD, Shih C-H, Glass SM, Vance JC. Effects of an aerobic fitness test on short- and long-term memory in elementary-aged children. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2020;38(19):2264–72. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1778251

Skodzik T, Holling H, Pedersen A. Long-Term Memory Performance in Adult ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders. 2016;21(4):267–83. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054713510561

Thaler NS, Allen DN, McMurray JC, Mayfield J. Sensitivity of the Test of Memory and Learning to Attention and Memory Deficits in Children with ADHD. The Clinical Neuropsychologist. 2010;24(2):246–64. https://doi.org/10.1080/13854040903277305

Roediger HL, Karpicke JD. Test-Enhanced Learning: Taking Memory Tests Improves Long-Term Retention. Psychological Science. 2006;17(3):249–55. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01693.x

Ventura LM, DeDios-Stern S, Oh A, Soble JR. They’re not just little adults: The utility of adult performance validity measures in a mixed clinical pediatric sample. Applied Neuropsychology: Child. 2019;10(4):297–307. https://doi.org/10.1080/21622965.2019.1685522

Miller EK, Lundqvist M, Bastos AM. Working Memory 2.0. Neuron. 2018;100(2):463–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.09.023

Bray N. Persistence is key. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2017;18(7):385–5. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn.2017.70

Bratzke D, Ulrich R. Short-term memory of temporal information revisited. Psychological Research. 2020; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-020-01343-y

Dubreuil AM. Short term memory properties of sensory neural architectures. Journal of Computational Neuroscience. 2019;46(3):321–32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10827-019-00720-w

Norris D. Short-term memory and long-term memory are still different. Psychological Bulletin. 2017;143(9):992–1009. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000108

Artuso C, Palladino P. Long-term memory effects on working memory updating development. Arslan B, editor. PLOS ONE. 2019;14(5):e0217697. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217697

Williams DL, Minshew NJ, Goldstein G, Mazefsky CA. Long-term memory in older children/adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Research. 2017;10(9):1523–32. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1801

Bruno D, Schurmann Vignaga S. Addenbrooke’s cognitive examination III in the diagnosis of dementia: a critical review. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2019;Volume 15:441–7. https://doi.org/10.2147/ndt.s151253

Noone P. Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-III. Occupational Medicine. 2015;65(5):418–20. https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqv041

Cormier DC, Kennedy KE, Aquilina AM. Test Review: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition: Canadian 322 (WISC-VCDN) by D. Wechsler. Canadian Journal of School Psychology. 2016;31(4):322–34. https://doi.org/10.1177/0829573516648941

Beal A. Wechsler intelligence scale for children. Canadian Journal of School Psychology. 2004;19(1):221–34. Available from: http://lmunet.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/wechsler- intelligence-scale-children/docview/224371618/se-2?accountid=12101

Nicky D. List of Standardized Tests | Study.com. 2020 [Accessed 2022 Apr 12]. Available from: https://study.com/academy/popular/list-of-standardized-tests.html

Medina N, Neill DM. Fallout from the Testing Explosion: How 100 Million Standardized Exams Undermine Equity and Excellence in America’s Public Schools. Third Edition (Revised). 1990 [Accessed 2022 Apr 12]; Available from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED318749

Ulmer L "Kate. STANDARDIZED EXAMS AND THE FACULTY: AN UNEASY ALLIANCE. The Journal of General Education. 1991;40:224–38. Available from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/27797138?casa_token=5AczG0BYEWsAAAAA%3AVeB90z4VediZj57MQHhadtmj6d34lLu95YW6CfQLurGRan01QdPFtlZZMm4x01nH0EXahNc4a67HCcNpWDUADx8YhFd2eembtctv-76bzkdtAzWNsMA

Buchmann C, Condron DJ, Roscigno VJ. Shadow Education, American Style: Test Preparation, the SAT and College Enrollment. Social Forces. 2010;89(2):435–61. https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.2010.0105

Arksey H, O’Malley L. Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology. 2005;8(1):19–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/1364557032000119616

Wilkes M, Bligh J. Evaluating educational interventions. BMJ. 1999;318(7193):1269–72. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.318.7193.1269

Tieges Z, Evans JJ, Neufeld KJ, MacLullich AMJ. The neuropsychology of delirium: advancing the science of delirium assessment. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2017;33(11):1501–11. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.4711

Hart RP, Best AM, Sessler CN, Levenson JL. Abbreviated cognitive test for delirium. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 1997;43(4):417–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-3999(97)00140-2

Lister RG, Eckardt MJ, Weingartner H. Ethanol intoxication and memory. Recent developments and new directions. Recent Developments in Alcoholism: An Official Publication of the American Medical Society on Alcoholism, the Research Society on Alcoholism, and the National Council on Alcoholism. 1987;5:111–26. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3550908/

Tamerin JS, Weiner S, Poppen R, Steinglass P, Mendelson JH. Alcohol and Memory: Amnesia and Short-Term Memory Function During Experimentally Induced Intoxication. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1971;127(12):1659–64. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.127.12.1659

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Varkey TC