Introduction: Intra-arch dental malocclusions are explained by the disharmony between the arch perimeter and the existing dental capital. The habitable perimeter is the result of the basal and alveolar growth, itself under the dependence of the musculature. The idea of working on the relationship between obesity and malocclusion is to understand whether the effects of mastication and the typology of musculature specific to this category, could have an influence on the dimensions of the arches and therefore on the genesis of malocclusions in children. The aim of this cross-sectional observational study is therefore to evaluate the impact of obesity and overweight on the development of malocclusion in growing age subjects.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 58 children aged 10 to 16 years old who consulted the Rabat Dental Treatment and Consultation Center CCTD-CHIS between January 2018 and December 2018. Excluded from this study were children who had received orthopedic treatment or were undergoing orthodontic treatment, children with system pathology, as well as those with incomplete dentures or proximal caries. The sample was divided into 2 groups according to their Body Mass Index (BMI): G1 normal weight children, G2 overweight or obese children. The variables studied were: dental crowding, overjet and overbite, presence of dysfunction or parafunction and height of the anterior face. The comparison of these variables between the two groups was made by Pearson's Chi-square test for qualitative variables and the non-parametric test (Mann- Whitney's U-test) for quantitative variables.
Results: The results of this study showed that the frequency of dysfunctions and parafunctions, as well as the increase in the lower anterior facial height were greater in the overweight/obese group (57.1%; 62.9% and 60.9% respectively). For endo-buccal parameters, crowding was greater in the overweight/obese group with a median of 2 [0-3] for this group and 1 [0-3] for the normo-weight group. The difference between the two groups for these parameters was not statistically significant. In addition, the results of this study showed that the overjet in the overweight/obese group was slightly reduced (1[o-2]) compared to the norm-weight group (2[1-3]). This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05).