Global, WHO Regional, and Continental Prevalence of Self-medication from 2000 to 2018: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
PDF

Keywords

Prevalence
Self-Medication
Global
Systematic Review

How to Cite

Ghasemyani, S. ., Roohravan Benis, M. ., Hosseinifard , H. ., Jahangiri, R. ., Aryankhesal, A. ., Shabaninejad, H. ., Rafiei, S. ., & Ghashghaee, A. . (2022). Global, WHO Regional, and Continental Prevalence of Self-medication from 2000 to 2018: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Annals of Public Health. https://doi.org/10.55085/aph.2022.585

Abstract

Background: Nowadays, with regard to the availability of medicines and populations’ increased knowledge of medical sciences, self-medication has increased which is a challenging issue for the healthcare system. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of self-medication, comprehensively at a global level. In addition, effective factors in this regard, including the motives of self-medication, diversity of medicines used, the supply resources, and type of the resulted disease were evaluated.
Materials: English language articles published during 2000-2018 were systematically searched in Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus to find relevant research. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated independently by two researchers the relevant articles were examined based on the prevalence of the phenomenon and factors such as setting of study, common reasons for self-medication, and common drugs used.
Results: From 951 primarily revealed articles, 69 papers were entered for the final analysis. Overall, 41620 individuals were included in the selected papers, 67% of whom (N=27890) had at least one experience of self-medication. Among the continents, Europe (Eastern) had the highest incidence rate of self-medication (74%, 95% CI, 56%-86%). In terms of supply resources, 71% of the subjects purchased drugs from pharmacies (95% CI, 61-80%). Regarding the condition that led to self-medication, 48% of the patients turned to self-medication due to neurological problems (95% CI, 40-55%). Among the causes of self-medication, “a previous history” and “minor nature of the disease” were the most common reasons for self-medication.
Conclusion: According to the results of the study, the mean incidence of self-medication was higher in Eastern Europe and Asian countries, compared to other parts of the world. This could be a considerable note for policy-makers of this field. In general, self-medication can lead to short and long-term harmful consequences for the society and the healthcare systems, resulting in huge costs for countries.

https://doi.org/10.55085/aph.2022.585
PDF

References

Chiribagula VB, Mboni HM, Amuri SB, Byanga J, Duez P, Simbi J, et al. [Prevalence and characteristics of self-medication among students 18 to 35 years residing in Campus Kasapa of Lubumbashi University]. Pan Afr med J. 2015 Jun 9;21:107. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2015.21.107.5651

Jamshed SQ, Wong PS, Yi HC, Yun GS, Khan MU, Ahmad A. Self-medication practices among female students of higher educational institutions in Selangor, Malaysia: A quantitative insight. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. Jul-Sep 2016;8(3):217. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.172662

Muzaffar D, Mahdey HM, Sonjaya D, Zafar MS. Tendency of self-medication among various malaysian ethnicities. J Pharmac Res Inter. 2018 Dec 5;9(2):1-7. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJPR/2016/21826

Yadav AK, Rai BK, Budhathoki SS, Ghimire A, Shrestha SR, Malla GB. Self-prescription of Paracetamol by Undergraduate Students in BP Koirala Institution of Health Sciences. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc. Jul-Sep 2016;55(203): 11-15.

Al Flaiti M, Al Badi K, Hakami WO, Khan SA. Evaluation of self-medication practices in acute diseases among university students in Oman. J Acute Dis. 2014;3(3):249-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-6189(14)60056-1

Ibrahim NK, Alamoudi BM, Baamer WO, Al-Raddadi RM. Self-medication with analgesics among medical students and interns in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Pak J Med Sci. Jan-Feb 2015;31(1):14-8. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.311.6526

Ullah H, Khan SA, Ali S, Karim S, Baseer A, Chohan O, et al. Evaluation of self-medication amongst university students in Abbottabad, Pakistan; prevalence, attitude and causes. Acta Pol Pharm. Sep-Oct 2013;70(5):919-22. [Accessed 2021 Dec 15]. Available from: https://ptfarm.pl/pub/File/Acta_Poloniae/2013/5/919.pdf

Alkhatatbeh MJ, Alefan Q, Alqudah MA. High prevalence of self-medication practices among medical and pharmacy students: a study from Jordan. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2016 May ;54(5) :390-8. https://doi.org/10.5414/cp202451

Bennadi D. Self-medication: A current challenge. J Basic Clin Pharm. 2013 Dec;5(1):19-23. https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-0105.128253

Organization WH. Guidelines for the regulatory assessment of Medicinal Products for use in self-medication. Geneva: WHO; 2000. [Accessed 2021 Dec 15]. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/66154/WHO_EDM_QSM_00.1_eng.pdf

Abay SM, Amelo W. Assessment of Self-medication practices among medical, pharmacy, health science students in Gondar University, Ethiopia. J Young Pharm. 2010 July;2(3):306-10. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-1483.66798

Eticha T, Mesfin K. Self-medication practices in Mekelle, Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2014 May 12;9(5):e97464. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0097464

Jain S, Malvi R, Purviya JK. Concept of self medication: A review. Int J Pharm Biol Arch. 2011;2(3):831-6.

Mumtaz Y, Jahangeer S, Mujtaba T, Zafar S, Adnan S. Self medication among university students of Karachi. Jlumhs. 2011;10(03):102-5. [Accessed 2021 Dec 15]. Available from: https://www.lumhs.edu.pk/jlumhs/Vol10No03/pdfs/v10n3oa13.pdf

Stosic R, Dunagan F, Palmer H, Fowler T, Adams I. Responsible self‐medication: perceived risks and benefits of over‐the‐counter analgesic use. Int J Pharm Pract. 2011 Aug;19(4):236-45. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7174.2011.00097.x

Verma RK, Mohan L, Pandey M. Evaluation of self medication among professional students in North India: Proper statutory drug control must be implemented. Evaluation. 2010;3(1):60-4.

Ehigiator O, Azodo CC, Ehizele AO, Ezeja EB, Ehigiator L, Madukwe IU. Self-medication practices among dental, midwifery and nursing students. Europ J Genrl Dent. 2013;2(1):54. [Accessed 2021 Dec 15]. Available from: https://go.gale.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA317917627&sid=googleScholar&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=abs&issn=22789626&p=AONE&sw=w&userGroupName=anon%7E4a74053c

Togoobaatar G, Ikeda N, Ali M, Sonomjamts M, Dashdemberel S, Mori R, et al. Survey of non-prescribed use of antibiotics for children in an urban community in Mongolia. Bull World Health Organ. 2010 Dec 1;88(12):930-6. https://doi.org/10.2471/blt.10.079004

Ayalew MB. Self-medication practice in Ethiopia: a systematic review. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2017 Mar 1;11:401-413. https://doi.org/10.2147/ppa.s131496

Ocan M, Obuku EA, Bwanga F, Akena D, Richard S, Ogwal-Okeng J, et al. Household antimicrobial self-medication: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the burden, risk factors and outcomes in developing countries. BMC Public Health. 2015 Aug;15(1):742. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2109-3

Bennadi D. Self-medication: A current challenge. J Basic Clin Pharm. 2013 Dec;5(1):19-23. https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-0105.128253

Pawaskar M, Balkrishnan R. Switching from prescription to over-the counter medications: a consumer and managed care perspective. Manag Care Interface. 2007 Jan;20(1):42-7.

Klemenc-Ketiš Z, Hladnik Ž, Kersnik J. A cross sectional study of sex differences in self-medication practices among university students in Slovenia. Coll Antropol. 2011 Jun;35(2):329-34. [Accessed 2021 Dec 15]. Available from: https://hrcak.srce.hr/file/102881

Kuss DJ, Dunn TJ, Wölfling K, Müller KW, Hȩdzelek M, Marcinkowski J. Excessive internet use and psychopathology: The role of coping. Clin Neuropsy. 2017;14(1):73-81. [Accessed 2021 Dec 15]. Available from: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/28364

Ruiz ME. Risks of self-medication practices. Curr Drug Saf. 2010 Oct;5(4):315-23. https://doi.org/10.2174/157488610792245966

Knopf H, Grams D. [Medication of adults in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2013 May;56(5-6):868-77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00103-013-1667-8

Garofalo L, Di Giuseppe G, Angelillo IF. Self-medication practices among parents in Italy. BioMed Res Int. 2015;2015: 580650. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/580650

Azami-Aghdash S, Mohseni M, Etemadi M, Royani S, Moosavi A, Nakhaee M. Prevalence and cause of self-medication in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis article. Iran J Public Health. 2015 Dec;44(12):1580-93. [Accessed 2021 Dec 15]. Available from: http://eprints.dums.ac.ir/327/

Gualano MR, Bert F, Passi S, Stillo M, Galis V, Manzoli L, et al. Use of self-medication among adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Public Health. 2015 Jun;25(3):444-50. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cku207

Shehnaz SI, Agarwal AK, Khan N. A systematic review of self-medication practices among adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2014 Oct;55(4):467-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.07.001

Jerez-Roig J, Medeiros LF, Silva VA, Bezerra CL, Cavalcante LA, Piuvezam G, et al. Prevalence of self-medication and associated factors in an elderly population: a systematic review. Drugs Aging. 2014 Dec;31(12):883-96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40266-014-0217-x

Alhomoud F, Aljamea Z, Almahasnah R, Alkhalifah K, Basalelah L, Alhomoud FK. Self-medication and self-prescription with antibiotics in the Middle East—do they really happen? A systematic review of the prevalence, possible reasons, and outcomes. Int J Infect Dis. 2017 Apr;57:3-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2017.01.014

Corrêa-Fissmer M, Mendonça MG, Martins AH, Galato D. Prevalence of self-medication for skin diseases: a systematic review. An Bras Dermatol. Jul-Aug 2014;89(4):625-30. https://doi.org/10.1590/abd1806-4841.20142872

Kardas P, Devine S, Golembesky A, Roberts C. A systematic review and meta-analysis of misuse of antibiotic therapies in the community. Int J Antimicrobial Agents. 2005 Aug;26(2):106-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2005.04.017

Von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP, et al. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Oct 16;147(8):573-7. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-147-8-200710160-00010

Klemenc-Ketiš Z, Kersnik J. The effect of demographic characteristics on self-medication patterns: a cross-sectional nationwide study from Slovenia. Coll Antropol. 2011 Dec;35(4):1237-42. [Accessed 2021 Dec 15]. Available from: https://hrcak.srce.hr/file/112372

Alam N, Saffoon N, Uddin R. Self-medication among medical and pharmacy students in Bangladesh. BMC Res Note. 2015;8(1):763. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1737-0

Al-Ameri RJ, Abd Al-Badri HJ, Lafta RK. Prevalence of self-medication among university students in Baghdad: a cross-sectional study from Iraq. East Mediterr Health J. 2017 Mar 30;23(2):87-93. https://doi.org/10.26719/2017.23.2.87

Asiedu K, Kyei S, Agyeman F, Gyamfi KM. Self medication with over-the-counter topical ophthalmic medications: a study of undergraduates in Ghana. Indo Global J Pharm Sci. 2016;6:34-7.

Abay SM, Amelo W. Assessment of self-medication practices among medical, pharmacy, and health science students in Gondar University, Ethiopia. J Young Pharm. 2010 Jul;2(3):306-10. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-1483.66798

Helal RM, Abou-ElWafa HS. Self-medication in university students from the city of Mansoura, Egypt. J Environ Public Health. 2017;2017: 9145193. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9145193

Sawalha AF. A descriptive study of self-medication practices among Palestinian medical and nonmedical university students. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2008 Jun;4(2):164-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2007.04.004

Sharif SI, Sharif RS. Self-medication among non-healthcare students of the University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Arch Pharm Prac. 2014;5(1):35. [Accessed 2021 Dec 15]. Available from: https://www.proquest.com/openview/08491a45d3fa31be686f7f59429850f2/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=616386

Sharma A, Oommen S, Topno I, Saya RP. Perceptions and practices of self-medication in healthcare and nonhealthcare university students in South India. J Basic Clinical Physiol Pharmacol. 2015 Nov;26(6):633-40. https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2015-0025

Ozdinc S, Sensoy N, Kurt R, Altas S, Altun R. Are we using drugs rationally? A survey study from Turkey. Pak J Med Sci. Sep-Oct 2015;31(5):1156-61. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.315.7370

Purreza A, Khalafi A, Ghiasi A, Farrokh MF, Nurmohammadi M. To identify self-medication practice among Medical Students of Tehran University of Medical Science. Iran J Epid. 2013; 8(4): 40-46. [Accessed 2021 Dec 15]. Available from: https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=326446

Zhu X, Pan H, Yang Z, Cui B, Zhang D, Ba-Thein W. Self-medication practices with antibiotics among Chinese university students. Public health. 2016;130:78-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2015.04.005

Olayemi O, Olayinka B, Musa A. Evaluation of antibiotic self-medication pattern amongst undergraduate students of Ahmadu Bello University (Main Campus) Zaria. Res J Appl Sci Eng Technol. 2010;2(1):35-8.

Zafar SN, Syed R, Waqar S, Zubairi AJ, Vaqar T, Shaikh M, et al. Self-medication amongst university students of Karachi: prevalence, knowledge and attitudes. J the Pak Med Assoc. 2008 Apr;58(4):214-7. [Accessed 2021 Dec 15]. Available from: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/47256516.pdf

Mogali S, Al-Ghanim S, Mohammed A, Alduais S, Al-Shabrani B. Self-medication practice among Yemeni patients in Ibb city: a survey study exploring patients’ perceptives. J Hosp Administr. 2015;4(4).

James H, Handu SS, Al Khaja KA, Otoom S, Sequeira RP. Evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practice of self-medication among first-year medical students. Med Princ Pract. 2006;15(4):270-5. https://doi.org/10.1159/000092989

Williams A, Crawford K. Self-medication practices among undergraduate nursing and midwifery students in Australia: a cross-sectional study. Contemp Nurse. 2016 Aug;52(4):410-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/10376178.2016.1197782

Haroun M, Al-Kayali R. Self. Medication Among Undergraduate Medical Students in Two Universities in Syria. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2017;8(4):1881.

Ali AS, Ahmed J, Sonekhi GB, Fayyaz N, Zainulabdin Z, Jindani R, et al. Practices of self-medication with antibiotics among nursing students of Institute of Nursing, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 2016 Feb;66(2):235-7.

Souza LA, da Silva CD, Ferraz GC, Sousa FA, Pereira LV. The prevalence and characterization of self-medication for obtaining pain relief among undergraduate nursing students. Rev Lat Enfermagem. 2011 Mar-Apr;19(2):245-51. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0104-11692011000200004

Gutema GB, Gadisa DA, Kidanemariam ZA, Berhe DF, Berhe AH, Hadera MG, et al. Self-medication practices among health sciences students: the case of Mekelle University. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2011;1(10):183-189. https://japsonline.com/admin/php/uploads/325_pdf.pdf

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Ghashghaee A et al.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.