Immunological Insights of Bat Coexistence with Viruses and beyond: A Holistic Review


Bat-human Interactions
Defense mechanisms

How to Cite

Patel, K. ., Kumar, S., Chand, G. B., & Azad, G. K. (2022). Immunological Insights of Bat Coexistence with Viruses and beyond: A Holistic Review. Biology Insights. Retrieved from


Bats are the reservoir host of the novel coronavirus/SARS-CoV-2. Bats are known to host hundreds of viruses, although they remain unharmed. Scientific evidence revealed that bats have various immunological specializations that enabled them to remain unaffected to coronaviruses. This manuscript highlights the aspects of bats’ defense mechanism against the viral load and their unique adaptability. Its ability to serve as propagating ground for viruses is favored by its extraordinary physiological traits and unique immune responses, including constitutive active interferons (IFNs), dampened inflammasome response, reduced DNA sensing mechanisms, and unique B and T cell components.
Furthermore, bats have evolved with their efficient mode of oxidative phosphorylation, loss of PYHIN gene family, and positive selection for DNA damage checkpoints. These multiple mechanisms are detrimental to the viral co-existence in bats and spillover events. Furthermore, we have discussed future directions to enhance knowledge and understanding of bat-human interactions and the genetic diversity of bat-borne viruses, which will play a crucial role in preventing future outbreaks.



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